Evolutionary biologists have shown that such systems can evolve, and that Behe's examples constitute an argument from ignorance. In the 2005 Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial, Behe gave testimony on the subject of irreducible complexity. The court found that "Professor Behe's claim for irreducible complexity has been refuted in peer-reviewed research papers and has been rejected by the scientific community at large." For a specific example, Behe mentioned the flagella of bacteria, which functions as a type of motor, requiring the interaction of about 40 protein parts. He asserts that if any of these 40 parts were taken away, the flagella would be unable to function. It has been shown that the base of the flagella is similar to the Type III secretion system of pathogenic germs. This TTSS is used by germs to inject toxins into cells. the TTSS shows that the flagella is not IC.